NCLB Compliant Playground Program
Scientific Research Review- Playground Research
Numerous playground research studies have shown that playground markings increase children’s physical activity levels at recess.
Scientifically based research cited in the literature review demonstrates that a research base exists to support the use of playground markings for improving children’s physical activity levels.
Playground Research conclusions from this review include:
- Increase children’s physical activity levels. Use of playground markings is effective in increasing the amount of physical activity.
- Increase children’s energy expenditures. Students utilizing playground markings increased their energy expenditure significantly over the control groups.
- Increase activity levels in primary and junior schools. Use of playgrounds painted with multicolored markings increase physical activity.
- Decrease bullying. Use of playground markings, in conjunction with the Peaceful Playgrounds Program, were found to decrease playground bullying.
- Decrease playground confrontations. Use of playground markings, in conjunction with the Peaceful Playgrounds Program, were found to decrease playground confrontations.
- Decrease playground injuries. Use of playground markings, in conjunction with the Peaceful Playground program, were shown to decrease playground injuries.
Research Results & Recommendations
Results from this study are clearly promising and this novel, inexpensive intervention which used the children to help select game markings, has potential to improve the health of children by increasing their energy expenditure through the promotion of physically active recess games.
Overall, the results suggest that playground painting can be a low-cost method of significantly increasing children’s daily physical activity levels in the short term. If these increases can be sustained on playgrounds designed in this way, it could be a valuable contribution to health-related physical activity recommendations for young people.United States Department of Education Classic Program Recognition
Blueprint and Promising programs have been determined by the United States Department of Education’s Safe and Drug-Free School and Community Program research; Classic and Emerging programs have been selected by the California Hate Crime Task Force. Four specific criteria were used by the Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence for selecting and identifying Blueprint or Promising programs for United States Department of Education.
- Strong Research Design.
- Evidence of Significant Prevention or Deterrent Effects.
- Multiple Site Replication.
- Sustained Effects.
Peaceful Playgrounds was a highlighted program in the curriculum category for the Promising Practices in After School Programming List Serve.
Peaceful Playgrounds is a physical activity program that has shown to decrease playground injuries, decrease bullying, and increase children’s physical activity levels.
The National Guideline Clearinghouse recommends our activities as a way to increase time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity during unstructured recess time.
Increasing physical activity in schools: kindergarten through eighth grade..
Use pre-developed design templates specifically designed to increase physical activity on the playground. Playground Markings and Activities are available from Peaceful Playgrounds.
Evaluation by a nationwide initiative that acts to decrease the incidence of childhood obesity by improving nutrition and increasing physical activity in schools, which will improve children’s readiness to learn. – 39kb – 2 Pages
The following programs have been either research tested and proven effective or reviewed and considered to be a promising practice. – 232kb – 6 Pages
Violence or hate behavior prevention programs toolkit – 97kb – 27 Pages
The Whole Story – Promising Practices in After School – 56kb – 3 Pages
Physical Education Best Practices Initiatives - Wisconsin:
A sample of physical education initiatives in Wisconsin – 58kb – 1 Page
Bullying and feelings of safety, seemed to improve over the course of the grant, and students improved as assessed by the Clark Motor Skills Inventory and the We Count pedometer program.
- Final Report
January 2006 – 21 Pages – 188kb
Peaceful Playgrounds schools reported very positive impact of recess or physical activity on academic achievement, social development and general well-being. Major improvement in overall classroom behavior after recess, physical education, or school physical activity.
January 2008 – 24 Pages – 10mb
A Plan for Playground Games
Louisiana Department of Education – Action for Healthy Kids
The Effects of Peaceful Playgrounds on Injury Reduction
The San Diego County Consortium (SDCC) was designed to provide standards-based curriculum, equipment and instructional support for physical education programs in elementary schools without physical education specialists.
August 2005 – 47kb
COPI and its partners work to create environments and policies that support physical activity and healthy eating for all Californians.
April 2005 – 120kb
December 2008 – 4 Pages – 38kb
May 2008 – 1 Page – 71kb
August 2004 – 15 Pages – 92kb
Portable Playground Equipment and Increased Physical Activity
Increasing preschoolers’ physical activity intensities: an activity-friendly preschool playground intervention Hannon JC, Brown BB. Prev Med. 2008 Jun;46(6):532-6. Epub 2008 Jan 26.
The purpose of this study was to see if portable play equipment added to a preschool playground resulted in higher intensities of physical activity among 3-5-year-old children.
Conclusion: Results suggest simple interventions, requiring little teacher training, can yield increases in healthy physical activity.
Relationships between the home environment and physical activity and dietary patterns of preschool children: a cross-sectional study N Spurrier, A Magarey, R Golley, F Curnow and M Sawyer. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2008, 5:31
Conclusion: Physical attributes of the home environment and parental behaviors are associated with preschool children’s physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary patterns. Many of these variables are modifiable and could be targeted in childhood obesity prevention and management. Three factors influenced the amount of children’s physical activity at home. 1. parental physical activity, 2. size of backyard, and 3. amount of outdoor play equipment.
San Diego County Office of Education
Instructional Television Presentation
Shaping Up: It’s Elementary
Solutions for Childhood Obesity.
PEP Grant Components.
SPARK and Peaceful Playgrounds.
View this 30 minute program…
Research on Playground Markings and Increased Physical Activity
Research shows physical activity is linked to increased learning Deb Loy, MSBA Journal. 2008 July/August.
Conclusion: Physical activity has always been a part of children’s educational experience. While many factors have contributed to the decline in students’ activity levels, there are multiple reasons and resources for school leaders to consider in reclaiming physical activity as an essential component to their growth, development and education.
The effect of multicolor playground markings on children’s physical activity level during recess Stratton G, Mullan E., Prev Med. 2005 Nov-Dec;41(5-6):828-33. Epub 2005 Aug 31.
Conclusion: Multicolor playground markings can be a low-cost method of increasing children’s daily physical activity levels in the short term. If these increases were sustained, then school playgrounds with multicolor markings would make a valuable contribution to physical activity recommendations for young people.
Promoting children’s physical activity in primary school: an intervention study using playground markings Stratton G. , Ergonomics. 2000 Oct;43(10):1538-46
Conclusion: These results suggest that while playground markings had a significant and positive influence on children’s physical activity, factors other than playground markings may also influence children’s physically active play.
Long-term effects of a playground markings and physical structures on children’s recess physical activity levels Ridgers ND, Stratton G, Fairclough SJ, Twisk JW. Prev Med. 2007 May;44(5):393-7. Epub 2007 Feb 1.
Conclusion: The results suggest that a playground redesign, which utilizes multicolor playground markings and physical structures, is a suitable stimulus for increasing children’s school recess physical activity levels.
Children’s physical activity levels during school recess: a quasi-experimental intervention study Ridgers ND, Stratton G, Fairclough SJ, Twisk JW. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2007 May 21;4:19.
Conclusion: The playground redesign intervention (playground markings and physical structures intervention) resulted in small but non-significant increases in children’s recess physical activity when school and pupil level variables were added to the analyses. Changing the playground environment produced a stronger intervention effect for younger children, and longer daily recess duration enabled children to engage in more MVPA following the intervention.
This study concludes that the process of increasing recess physical activity is complex when school and pupil-level covariates are considered, though they should be taken into account when investigating the effects of playground intervention studies on children’s physical activity during recess.
PLAYGROUND RESEARCH PROJECTS AT A GLANCE
Project Description - Services
|Saugus Union||CA||PEP Grant||Peaceful Playgrounds in 14 schools including program, training, equipment and research on program results looking at improving physical activity levels, decreasing bullying and improving motor skill acquisition|
|California Obesity Prevention Initiative||CA||Department of Health Services||Study in 4 San Diego City Schools to create environments and policies that support physical activity and healthy eating.Final Obesity Prevention Initiative OPI) Evaluation Report|
|Whittier City Schools After-School Programs||CA||PEP Grant||12 Schools receiving Peaceful Playgrounds and Fundamental Movement Programs for after school programming.|
|Sand Diego Consortium Physical Education for Progress||CA||PEP Grant||Peaceful Playgrounds in 14 schools including program, training, equipment and research on program results looking at conflict resolution, physical activity levels, playground referrals and injuries.Peaceful Playgrounds PEP Project Evaluation|
|Curran Elementary||CA||TUPE Funds||6 year study on injuries and rule infractions on playground. Published in School Safety Magazine Oct. 1998. Won Golden Bell Award for outstanding program in safety category based on research results.A Program to Reduce Playground Injuries in School Settings|
|National Survey of Peaceful Playgrounds Purchasers||US||Peaceful Playgrounds||National survey of customer satisfaction levels regarding Peaceful Playgrounds promises.|
|South Bay Schools In Progress 5 Year Grant||CA||Robert Wood Foundation||Research on children’s physical activity levels before, during recess and after school using Peaceful Playgrounds designs.|
Download a Copy of our Current Research Projects
2006 – 1 Page – 16kb